How Linux Works -- Command Line Operations --
Listing and Manipulating Processes
About ps options
Confusingly, you can specify options in three different ways -- Unix, BSD, and GNU.
Most people use BSD style.
ps xShow all of your running processes.
ps axShow all processes on the system, not just the ones you own.
ps uInclude more detailed information on processes.
ps wShow full command names, not just what fits on one line.
Note that you can combine options like
To terminate a process, send it a signal with the kill command. A signal is a
message to a process from the kernel.
There are plenty of signals.
The default signal is
Instead of killing the process, you can freeze it with:
$ kill -STOP pid
and continue with:
$ kill -CONT pid
The most brutal way to terminate a process is with the
Other signals give the process a chance to clean up after itself, but
Using ctrl-C to terminate a process that is running in the current terminal is the
same as using kill to end the process with the
INT (interrupt) signal.
A symbolic link is a file that points to another file or directory.
$ ln -s target linkname
-sspecifies a symbolic link
-s, ln creates a hard link, which points directly to the file date instead of another filename as asymbolic link does.
This can be quite confusing if you do not have enough knowledge.
To create an archive, you can use
$ tar cvf archive.tar file1 file2 ...
cdenotes create mode
vdenotes verbose mode
fdenotes file option ( the following argument must be the archive file for tar to create)
$ tar xvf archive.tar
xdenotes extract mode
tflag instead of
x, you can verify the archive`s basic integrity and print the names of all files inside.
poption preserve original permissions instead of automatically applying
umaskto extracted files.
Contents above are entirely based on How Linux Works, 2nd Edition: What Every Superuser Should Know